chinese contribution to jamaica's economy

Since independence in 1962, the country has developed markedly but unevenly. The truth is though, the Chinese, one of the minority groups in Jamaica, has a tremendous impact on the Jamaican society, particularly in the areas of culture, business and economy. It lies 630 kilometres north-east of mainland Central America. Another group came from Panana i. Talk To MeWas the information helpful? Economists say Beijing may announce its first-ever quarterly economic contraction as coronavirus shuts businesses. By late 1930's, Jamaica was said to have the largest number of Chinese community in the Caribbean, outside of Cuba. China is, after all, Brazil’s biggest trading partner. 8, No. And as Jamaica embarks on its own journey using its modernised SEZ framework, China’s journey holds valuable insights into the remarkable transformational power of SEZs. The latter helped China in its production and exports of manufactures. Share this awesome content with your friends now. Preliminary agreements with the Chinese government were signed in April 2014, marking the first step in the restructuring of the Jamaican economy. 29 June 2020 | Economies, Vol. Once upon a time, Jamaica had an influx of Chinese that caused so much unrest among natives, that the Government implemented quota restrictions on Chinese immigrants. Here's the full recipe, plus the video. One of the great development effects of SEZs is their spillover effects into the rest of the economy. Its journey to becoming ‘the factory of the world’ holds several important lessons in industrial development, attracting foreign direct investment, and economic diversification. Many were lured by recruiting agents who offered a great alternative to the harsh conditions brought by hears of drought, family, civil war and floods. The great fall of China’s economy: GDP set for historic plunge. Today I'll attempt to answer some  frequently asked questions, about these, the Chinese in Jamaica. Also connect with My-Island-Jamaica.com on Social Media: questions and answers! This year, the series (staged by the Herbie Miller-led Jamaica Music Museum) is dedicated to the contribution of the Chinese to the development of Jamaican music. I assume you also mean persons of Chinese descent in Jamaica right? You are also invited to join his exclusive JAMHearts community where like-minded Jamaican enthusiasts discuss all things Jamaican. The Chinese who were already here – about 4,000 by the mid-1920s and 6,000 by 1930 – had to suffer through ill-will to ward their many businesses, which included laundries, restaurants, bakeries and retail groceries. This increased participation or value addition may come in a variety of forms that would see Jamaica and her people expanding their skills and expertise in research and development, design, production, logistics, marketing or services, etc, in a range of industries. Jamaica has set itself an ambitious goal and programme through its national development plan to "make Jamaica the place of choice to live, work, raise families, and do business". Jamaica: Economy. contribution; Figures; References; Related; Details; Cited By 12. The ultimate aim of the global logistics hub is to increase the length, width and depth of Jamaica’s participation in global supply and value chains. If you are on social media, here are the links to follow his latest posts. Please don't use the comments to advertise. This infrastructure — land, sea, air or technology — must not only be fit for purpose but must be networked together to create value for stakeholders (workers, government, investors, etc). Citizens at least 18 years of age are eligible to vote. Acting Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the Agro-Investment Corporation, Michael Pryce, is emphasizing the importance of the fisheries sector to the economy, which contributed US$79million to the country’s gross domestic product two years ago. ... by China’s JISCO group in 2016 with promises from the Jamaican government of creating jobs and boosting the local economy. In its SEZ authority, Jamaica, much like China, has created a mechanism to do just that. , Copyright © 2007-2020 My-Island-Jamaica.com, the contribution of ethic groups to Jamaica. I've covered a substantial number of topics related to Christmas. Confirming trends forecast in recent reports from the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), Chinese companies have recently announced major diversified investments in Jamaica and St Lucia. What are the Jamaican Christmas traditions? The Hosei festival commemorates the martyrdom of the grandson of Muhammad who was assassinated in Karbala by Yazid. ANSWER: The Chinese were first brought to Jamaica and other parts of the Caribbean (British West Indies) in the 19th century as contract (indentured) laborers to work on the sugar estates, this following emancipation in 1834. Since independence in 1962, the country has developed markedly but unevenly. Investors must have confidence that it is easy to invest, their investment is safe, and the operations of their investment will not be compromised by excessive red tape. The efficient and effective administration of the SEZ regulatory environment is a self-evident, yet often understated, success factor for SEZs. The Jamaican economy should be a US$30-billion economy rather than a US$15-billion one. Jamaica is a large island in the Caribbean Sea. Once upon a time, Jamaica had an influx of Chinese that caused so much unrest among natives, that the Government implemented quota restrictions on Chinese immigrants. We welcome reader comments on the top stories of the day. Economists say Beijing may announce its first-ever quarterly economic contraction as coronavirus shuts businesses. Apart from the development of commerce, the popularity of Chinese food … Jamaica - Jamaica - Government and society: Under the Jamaica (Constitution) Order in Council of 1962, by which the island achieved independence from the United Kingdom, Jamaica is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government. During this time many Chinese and Blacks intermarried and had children. Drop Pan is said to have arrived in Jamaica with the earliest Chinese immigrants in the 1850s. 2. Jamaica has successfully concluded its economic reform program, which was supported by a US$1.66 billion Stand-By Arrangement from the IMF. This is much more than just cutting red tape, but it’s about bureaucracies being facilitators and delivering government services as value additions. At a growth rate of 5% per year over a 10-year period, the debt/GDP would be down to 65%. China realised early that it was not enough to have a cheap labour force, but it had to have an educated one as well. In fact, over time China’s skills training development became an integral part of its investor targeting, innovation, and overall economic growth strategies. Public debt fell below 100% of GDP in 2018/19 and is expected to decline below 60% by 2025/26, in line with the provisions of the Fiscal Responsibility Law. Read on to learn more about this signature aspect of Jamaican life. But as indicated above, the majority came later as free immigrants because of family and business connections the first half of the 1900s. consequences for the Chinese economy. The island is famed for it’s beautiful scenery, and attractions. There are mountains and plateaus to the interior and east of the island. under discussion. Many also make it their mandate to travel in the month of February because in Jamaica that is celebrated as Reggae Month. SEZs became China’s windows to the world. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Jamaica was worth 15.72 billion US dollars in 2018, according to official data from the World Bank and projections from Trading Economics. Our debt to China represents approximately 3.9 per cent of the country's total debt and will be paid off in the next decade. Interesting question! Their greatest contribution was not culinary but in the realm of spirituality. Copyright © 2013 Jamaica Observer. Lastly, read our Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy, South Korea detects first coronavirus variant cases, Trump, under pressure, signs $900 bn COVID relief bill, Clarendon's most wanted killed in Manchester, South Africa logs over one million COVID-19 cases, WIPA extends sympathies and best wishes to Tyron Theophile, High Alert activated for 10-y-o Joshua Robinson, Barbadian-born retired NYPD detective throws hat in race for New York City Council district, US COVID outbreak may worsen after holidays — Fauci, IDB approves record US$21.6 billion in lending to Caribbean countries in 2020, Trinidadian charged with murdering Jamaican to appear in court, Bartlett touts COVID Ambassador Programme, COVID-19: Here's what you need to know today, Jamaica records 39 new cases of COVID-19, one death, AstraZeneca COVID vaccine has 'winning formula' — CEO, Caribbean medical practitioners urge community to take COVID-19 vaccine, Bermuda's COVID-19 death toll rises to 10. Share your passion(about your city, hobby or experience) and make a living from it. Its close neighbours are Haiti, to the east, and Cuba, to the north. It is surrounded by coastal plains, with sandy beaches and many natural bays. Though Jamaica contribution of travel and tourism to GDP (% of GDP) fluctuated substantially in recent years, it tended to increase through 2000 - 2019 period ending at 34.7 % in 2019. The Chinese were noted for their acumen business and for the caring and nurturing of their children placing great emphasis on education and family life. Jamaica’s SEZ policy and law recognise this fact and have created several mechanisms, particularly aimed at small businesses, to accomplish this. Remittances in Jamaica averaged 1901.29 USD Million from 2001 until 2019, reaching an all time high of 2415.10 USD Million in 2019 and a record low of 968 USD Million in 2001. 2. The majority of the Chinese arriving in Jamaica came however in the 20th century as free immigrants through family and other connections, primarily in the years 1910 and 1940. It was the second consecutive quarterly contraction and the steepest on record, officially entering into recession as the economy was hit by the coronavirus pandemic and drought. Whenever tourists think about coming to Jamaica, they think our beaches, waterfalls, sun, food and lifestyle - and a big part of that is Reggae, and the thought alone gets them excited. Most estimates give the Black population in Jamaica at roughly 92 percent and the Mixed population somewhere at about 6.How true this is depends on where you draw the line on “Mixed”, as Brown people make up a good portion of the population. Click Here to watch my latest videos on my fun YouTube channel - you'll love it! efforts have earned this site featured positions in local publications, Many of the descendants of early migrants have moved abroad, primarily to Canada and the United States. In the mid-19th century, many Chinese looked west: to California, answering the call of the gold rush, and to Panama, where labourers were required for the building of a … The strategic and focused use of SEZs as a development tool holds a special — pun intended — place in China’s story. country comparison to the world (CIA rank, may be based on non-current data): 109. Much like China, Jamaica, albeit on a smaller scale, has been developing and integrating its multi-modal logistics infrastructure. Enjoy! Also connect with My-Island-Jamaica.com on Social Media: Facebook | Twitter | Instagram | YoutubeThank You! Have Your Say| [citation needed] According to the 1946 Census, 12,394 Chinese were located between Jamaica and Trinidad. (‘What can Africa learn from China’s special economic zones?’ by Yejoo Kim, World Economic Forum). Kayann's authentic Jamaican rum cake is not only very simple, but 'deliciously tasty and rummy' (my phrase). Today, drop pan's meanings are most likely both Chinese and Afro-Jamaican in … December 27, 2017 1.1K views 0 comments. If we are to seize opportunities to promote China’s all-round development, it is critical to expand the economy. In 2018, it generated a total of 90 trillion yuan Renminbi (US$14 trillion). Minister of Agriculture, Labour and Social Security, Hon. This is far superior to what the IMF agreement is offering. In 1990s, the creative economy in OECD countries grew at an annual rate twice that of service industries and four times that of manufacturing (Howkins, 2001). accommodating if emailed: advertising@jamaicaobserver.com. While China is a large and growing market for U.S. firms, its incomplete transition to a free-market Merry Christmas to you and yours my friend! Chinese Jamaicans are Jamaicans of Chinese ancestry, which include descendants of migrants from China to Jamaica.Early migrants came in the 19th century; there was another wave of migration in the 1980s and 1990s. Please understand that comments are moderated and it is not always possible to publish all that have been Does Jamaica Have Christmas? The first recorded way of Chinese came to Jamaican in 1854 on the Epsom ship, arriving on the 31st of July after a three month voyage, having left Hong Kion with 267 men. and universities. Those who came from Panama came from a larger group who came to work on the construction of the Panama railroad but died as a result of disease and harsh conditions there. As China expanded rapidly in the 2000s, eventually becoming the world’s second-largest economy, it relied on commodities from producers. However, what unifies them all is that they are development tools used by governments to attract and facilitate investments that act as catalysts to diversify whole or targeted segments of their economies. It works! Some of the contributions of the Chinese to Jamaica’s culture are listed below. Many individual Chinese Jamaicans have also achieved prominence in the country's civic, industrial and political life. Although China’s journey is a complex one filled with a variety of policy prescriptions, one policy tool stands above the rest — special economic zones (SEZs). The success story of China’s SEZs continues today and will for the foreseeable future. For Jamaica, much like China, SEZs are a special vehicle to increase its participation in the global economy. Having the right business environment is critical to attracting investors. Unfortunately 43 reportedly died at sea and several more upon arrival. What is more, China also recognised that, in developing its skilled labour pool, it was important that it match its skills training with the needs of current and future industries. This, in part, is the very reason China, and now Jamaica, created the zones. Bauxite mining began in 1952, presently Jamaica is the world’s third largest producer of bauxite and alumina. Chances are someone already asked (and got an answer to) your question. Jamaica Economic Growth The economy will suffer a steep contraction this year due to Covid-19, but is set to rebound next year as both domestic and foreign demand strengthen. Please help me get the message out by sharing this article with your friends on social media (links below). Bilateral trade between Jamaica and the People’s Republic of China increased from US$58 million in 2000, to US$382 million in 2017. And how is Jamaica’s economy now? Contact| It has been long, Like My Site? Although some Chinese went back home to marry Chinese wives who they brought back to Jamaica, others inter-married with non-Chinese Jamaicans contributing to the island's racial mixture. or in the newspaper � email addresses will not be published. Traditional Jamaican Childhood Games | The Games We Loved To Play! The International Monetary Fund predicts that the world economy will grow by 3.6 percent this year and China’s economy will swell by 6.7 percent, contributing around 35 percent to global growth. Archives| The Ska dance . Earlier this week, I had the wonderful accompany my friend, Ms (Maxine) James and her family to do sea moss (Irish Moss) harvesting. Old Archives| Today, we see Chinese national come and go, even though, perhaps not on that scale, but a lot more frequent. The key goals under the two successive IMF-supported programs were to restore economic stability, while pursuing policies that will provide a long-term foundation to sustain growth, create jobs, and protect the most vulnerable. It is an upper middle-income economy that is nevertheless struggling due to low growth, high public debt, and exposure to external shocks. The latter field saw Chinese entrepreneurs making a colossal contribution to the development of early Jamaican … Jamaican culture is a product of the interaction between Europe and Africa. The latter field saw Chinese entrepreneurs making a colossal contribution to … No, Not that I am aware of, Jamaica is still an independent nation, duly owned by Jamaicans since 1962! Something needs changing? Ainsley Brown is a policy analyst in the Ministry of Economic Growth and Job Creation. China. It was the second consecutive quarterly contraction and the steepest on record, officially entering into recession as the economy was hit by the coronavirus pandemic and drought. Romancing Jamaica: Chinese-Jamaican Women and Nationalist Aesthetics Amrita Bandopadhyay PhD candidate in English University of Florida, ... the black lower middle-class opposed Chinese overrepresentation in the upper echelons of the economy (Gray 1991, 83). submitted. Do like I did! Teresia Kaulihowa and Charles Adjasi. However, SEZs offer policymakers an opportunity to experiment with a variety of reforms with limited risk to the wider economy. Please Click Here To Share It With Your Friends, Home| Partners| TIP ME!| For Authentic Jamaican products, from my very own hands, visit my Etsy store here. It was restricted by the government as early as 1898. The first Chinese Arrivals, in 1854, came from Hong Kong. Apart from the development of commerce, the popularity of Chinese food among Jamaicans is a lasting contribution … Read more about him here. The great fall of China’s economy: GDP set for historic plunge. Link To Us. Thnx ;-). This month’s visit of President Xi Jinping’s visit to Manila marks another turning point in Philippines-China relations. SEZs, in this regard, act as incubators to test and refine reforms before rolling them out to the wider economy. These Traditional Jamaican childhood games are some of the most creative in the world; from Chiney Skip, to Box Truck they are dynamic and all fun! The economic situation of Jamaica has worsened considerably, with the ongoing world financial crisis which has had devastating effects on the economy. THE ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF TRAVEL & TOURISM: REAL 2017 PRICES 12 THE ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF TRAVEL & TOURISM: NOMINAL PRICES 13 THE ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF TRAVEL & TOURISM: GROWTH 14 GLOSSARY 15 METHODOLOGICAL NOTE 16 REGIONS, SUB-REGIONS & COUNTRIES 17. forecast to grow by 0.5% in 2018, and grow by 1.9% pa, from 2018-2028, to … It tells you each week about the new information that I have added, including new developments and great stories from lovers of Jamaica! Definition: This entry shows where production takes place in an economy. Colossal contribution The more progressive Chinese entrepreneurs soon ventured into larger commercial activities like restaurants, laundries, wholesales and music production. Although some Chinese went back home to marry Chinese wives who they brought back to Jamaica, others inter-married with non-Chinese Jamaicans contributing to the island's racial mixture. In 2019, contribution of travel and tourism to GDP (% of GDP) for Jamaica was 34.7 %. Since the 1960's they are have also been an increasing visibility of Chinese professionals in the island. Read more about him. Reforming an economy is no easy task and one that cannot be done overnight, no matter the size of the economy (Jamaica vs China). Or, simply click here and here, to browse my library of over 500 questions and answers! He invites you to subscribe to this site to stay updated on all the latest and check out his unique Jamaican products on his Etsy store. The Chinese economy had established itself as an outward‐oriented economy and by the time it acceded to the WTO it had become trade dependent. The lyrics of ska were often about the prevailing socio-economic commentaries of the less privileged in the society. This goes beyond attracting and facilitating investments — as important as that is — into due diligence, long-term assessment, planning, and ongoing monitoring of investors and their investments to ensure that they align to the country’s goals and policy priorities. 20.6% of GDP (2016 est.) There were 122 women in the group. Jamaica - Jamaica - Economy: Jamaica’s economy is mixed but increasingly based on services, notably tourism and finance. including the Jamaica Gleaner's Hospitality Jamaica, Carlong Publishers, Read here. However, our advertising department can be more than In only a few days, we'll be celebrating Christmas! New! OMG. Brazil, Latin America’s largest economy, shipped soybeans, iron ore and crude to satisfy China’s expanding appetite. Singapore has a local population that is similar to ours and another 3 million expatriates living there, and manufacturing contributes 21% to … Tourism is the island’s main source of foreign exchange earnings. New! If I say They Came And Conquered, it would be hard for you, or anyone, to argue with me and win! The latter are based chiefly on the colourful rhythmic intensity of the island’s African heritage. China and Jamaica have longstanding ties, dating as far back as the mid-19th century, when the British Empire began recruiting workers from China. For China its SEZ journey began in the late 1970s/early 1980s as part of Deng Xiaoping’s economic reform and opening up of China to the world. Jamaica has had universal suffrage since 1944. They do not stand by themselves, but form part of a larger economic reform programme for China that was Deng Xiaoping’s opening up of China to the world; and for Jamaica, it is Vision 2030 and the global logistics hub. My estimate would be closer to 30 percent.But wherever we fall on the Black spectrum, there is no escaping Africa’s influence. We will, however, try to publish comments that are representative of all received. ICT/BPO. Key facts. Ciara has made two contributions. In 2013, Jamaica launched an ambitious reform program to stabilize the economy, reduce debt, and fuel growth, gaining national and international support. Jamaica - Jamaica - Economy: Jamaica’s economy is mixed but increasingly based on services, notably tourism and finance. This year Jamaica became the 10th Caribbean country to formally sign on to China's Belt and Road Initiative. [Wilberne H Persaud; University of the West Indies (Mona, Jamaica). I welcome, Other Great Articles You Might Have Missed. How a Chinese-Jamaican’s family history quest led her to Hong Kong. This reportedly, was the first arrival of Chinese women. For Jamaica, education and training are critical components of Vision 2030 and the global logistics hub. Business Mogul, Michael Lee- Chin, Chinese Descendant. There are various definitions of SEZs; however, in the simplest of terms, they are "geographically designated trade areas that are used to attract foreign investors and boost industrialisation. Miao Miao, Qiaoqi Lang, Dinkneh Gebre Borojo, Jiang Yushi and Xiaoyun Zhang. ... they must be recognized for the contributions they have made to the Jamaican culture and the inception of Rastafari. A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step. This law was amended in the 1920s due to the game's substantial popularity. The next major set that arrived on the Prinz Alexander were mainly poor villagers with a farming background, arriving mainly form the southern province of Guangdong. Also please stick to the topic where like-minded Jamaican enthusiasts discuss all things Jamaican. "Chinese students, and other students, are an extraordinary stimulus to the economy. Since the European debt crisis, the global trade protectionism and anti-globalization trend has gained ground. Return to Jamaican Culture from Chinese In JamaicaReturn to My Island Jamaica from Chinese In Jamaica. On- and off-site infrastructural integration. Air Jamaica : contribution to the Jamaican economy. His Click Here to try our dependable and effective Site Search tool. Efficient and effective administration. Jamaica Culture - Jamaican Customs, Traditions and Way of Life, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_Jamaicans#Notable_people, Homestyle Jamaican Rum Cake Recipe | In Text And Video, Jamaican Christmas Customs | 10 Helpful Resources On Christmas In Jamaica, Jamaican Christmas Traditions | 14 UNUSUAL Questions, Answered, My Jamaican Sea Moss Harvesting Adventure | How We Harvest Jamaican Irish Moss, "Marcia Thomas | Jamaica At Miss World: A 60-Year Success Story", http://jamaica-gleaner.com/article/commentary/20200107/marcia-thomas-jamaica-miss-world-60-year-success-story, "Beverley's", https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beverley's. The Chinese who were already here – about 4,000 by the mid-1920s and 6,000 by 1930 – had to suffer through ill-will to ward their many businesses, which included laundries, restaurants, bakeries and retail groceries. He notes that Jamaica remains his country’s largest trading partner in the English-speaking Caribbean. There were 11,700 Chinese in Jamaica in 1970 but that declined to just over 5,000 in the 1980's following emigration to the USA and Canada, primarily, because of political reasons. Jamaica Economic Growth The economy will suffer a steep contraction this year due to Covid-19, but is set to rebound next year as both domestic and foreign demand strengthen. efforts have earned this site featured positions in local publications, Was the information helpful? For Authentic Jamaican products, from my very own hands, visit my Etsy store here. FDI and Welfare Dynamics in Africa. It is certainly true that Jamaica can learn many important lessons from China and other countries in the use of SEZs as a tool for economic development; however, to my mind, here are seven of the most important: SEZs, while important, are not an economic magic bullet and are not a cure-all for a country’s entire economic woes. 10 Chinese contributions to world civilization #1 Paper Making. Based on Jamaica's location in relation to the Americas, we play a role similar to Singapore, which sees a great deal of transshipment, which significantly helps its economy. On July 19 the Jamaican government announced that the Alpart alumina … He notes that Jamaica remains his country’s largest trading partner in the English-speaking Caribbean. The obvious benefit of WTO accession was improvement in access to export markets and reduction in import cost of raw materials and intermediate products. Not all four-letter words are bad. China is also boosting recovery of world trade. Institute of Social and Economic Research.] This is the most obvious one, right? If you found this page useful, please consider subscribing to my weekly newsletter, My Island Jamaica Digest here. Jamaica - Jamaica - Cultural life: Jamaica’s cultural development has been deeply influenced by British traditions and a search for roots in folk forms. 3. Remittances in Jamaica increased to 2415.10 USD Million in 2019 from 2345.80 USD Million in 2018. Jamaica Culture | It's the single most important element that defines Jamaica as Jamaica. All Rights Reserved. The country derives most of its foreign exchange from tourism, remittances, and bauxite/alumina. Something needs changing? Incubation for larger economic reforms. We ask that comments are civil and free of libellous or hateful material. China is continuing to increase and diversify its investments in the Caribbean region. Earnings from remittances and tourism each account for 14% and 20% of GDP, while bauxite/alumina exports have declined to less than 5% of GDP. That's just one of 14 unusual questions we answered on Christmas in Jamaica. It is interesting that this group started the voyage on another ship, The Diamond, which was disabled at sea because of a storm, before they were transferred to The Prinz Alexander. Thanks to Cai Lun for inventing this magic called Paper in 105 AD. Jamaica's economy shrank 15.7 percent on quarter in the three months to June 2020, following a 1.9 percent drop in the previous period. Get this from a library! 3. Yes, there was a time when our ancestors used bamboo, stones, wood, and animal bones as writing materials which were cumbersome, and expensive thing to do. The IMF sees U.S. GDP at 2% in 2020, and will decline further to 1.7% in 2021. To date, he serves over 9,300 unique readers / viewers per day. One of the most critical factors that contributes to the success or failure of zones is availability and integration of adequate and appropriate infrastructure inside and outside of a zone. 18% of GDP (2015 est.) Others came in subsequent years and spread across the Caribbean. Party control is mixed ever more intimately with market mechanisms . Site Search| The Jamaica Observer ePaper is available to you at home or at work, and is the same edition as the printed copy available at http://bit.ly/epaper-login. The Impacts of Chinese FDI and China–Africa Trade on Economic Growth of African Countries: The Role of Institutional Quality . 7. A critical element of Vision 2030 is transforming Jamaica into a global logistics hub, which includes bringing together Jamaica’s geographic and other advantages with land, sea, air, and technological infrastructure to support Jamaica’s modern industrial development. The Jamaican economy is heavily dependent on services, which accounts for more than 70% of GDP. Today, can we imagine life without a paper? The incubation of reforms gives policymakers policy room to create strong test cases done under as close to local conditions that may increase the opportunity for success when rolled out in the wider economy.

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